Stanlake J.W.T. Samkange, a Zimbabwean philosopher, outlined the three maxims of ubuntu.
- To be human is to affirm one's humanity by recognizing the humanity of others and, on that basis, establish respectful human relations with them.
- If and when one is faced with a decisive choice between wealth and the preservation of the life of another human being, then one should opt for the preservation of life.
- The king owed his status, including all the powers associated with it, to the will of the people under him.
The maxims of ubuntu seek to assert the value of human life over material gain and political power.